Were you lost in another world? Did the author describe the characters and the scene so vividly that you felt as though you were a part of the story? This is all due to imagery, words, and phrases used to help the reader develop a mental image of the story throughout the novel. Imagery in literature is what helps draw readers in.
Develop a range of instructional and assessment methods and test preparation methods. Instruction Linda Gojakformer NCTM President, noted that "Over the last three decades a variety of instructional strategies have been introduced with a goal of increasing student achievement in mathematics.
Such strategies include individualized instruction, cooperative learning, direct instruction, inquiry, scaffolding, computer-assisted instruction, and problem solving" with the flipped classroom being a recent addition to the list para.
Blended learning is also on the rise, which adds online learning to traditional classrooms. Thus, another goal for teachers is to investigate instructional and assessment methods and how they might be incorporated appropriately into lesson plans.
In its Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All, NCTM indicated the following research-based mathematics teaching practices, which should be "consistent components of every mathematics lesson": Establish mathematics goals to focus learning.
Implement tasks that promote reasoning and problem solving. Use and connect mathematical representations. Facilitate meaningful mathematical discourse. Build procedural fluency from conceptual understanding.
Support productive struggle in learning mathematics. Elicit and use evidence of student thinking. Active student involvement reinforces learning. This is not to minimize the role of direct instruction, however.
Students should become active in the learning process immediately upon entering the classroom. Muschla, Muschla, and Muschla-Berry stated: Losing just the first five minutes daily amounts to 25 lost minutes per week of instruction and could amount to a loss of 20 class periods of instruction per school year.
Their solution is using a math-starter problem that students begin immediately upon entering the classroom.
Each is designed to be completed in minutes, which includes reviewing the answer and any follow-up discussion. This strategy is also good for classroom management, as during this time the teacher can take attendance, pass back papers, interact individually with students, and observe students as they work p.
Strategies can help understand the problem, simplify the task, determine the cause of a problem, involve external aids to help identify problem solutions, use logic to help identify possible solutions.
Strategies can also identify a possible solution to serve as a starting point to solve a problem, or determine which possible solution is best. Strategies can employ geometric thinking, help you to function optimally while problem solving, and help solve multiple problems. George Polya's Problem-Solving Techniques contain details of his four principles that have become a classic for math problem-solving: Assessment Assessing student understanding and designing instruction to meet learners' needs are challenging tasks.
Popham noted that assessment is a broad term: Assessments also include the variety of informal techniques a teacher might use to check on the status of students' skills for the purpose of guiding instruction rather than for grade-giving, such as when a teacher periodically projects multiple-choice questions on a screen during a lesson and asks students, "on the count of three," to hold up one of four prepared index cards showing the letter of what each student believes is the correct answer.
Popham,Preface section, para. See Part 2 of this essay for more on the role of assessment. Specific strategies for math and other content areas are included. CT4ME has an entire section devoted to standardized test preparation.
Mathagogy includes several two-minute videos from math educators around the world who are sharing how they approach teaching various topics.
For example, teachers have uploaded how they introduce sine and cosine graphs, teach inquiry, algebraic literacy, prime numbers, proportions, probability, proof, and how they teach using Cuisenaire rods or using one question lessons. Improving Instruction The following delves into theory and research; learning styles, multiple intelligences and thinking styles; and differentiated instruction and the educator's ideology.
Theory and Research Every teacher should have some knowledge on how students learn and be able to connect research to what they do in the classroom. In the Science of Learningthe Deans for Impact provide a valuable summary of cognitive science research on how learning takes place.
In it you'll find cognitive principles and practical implications for the classroom related to six key questions on how students understand new ideas, learn and retain new information, and solve problems; how learning transfers to new situations; what motivates students to learn; and common misconceptions about how students think and learn About section.
Likewise, the Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation in New South Wales, Australia elaborates on research that teachers really need to understand about cognitive load theory: For example, when teaching, you'll learn about the effect of using worked examples with novices and learners who gain expertise, the effect of redundancy unnecessary information might actually lead to instructional failurethe negative effect of split-attention processing multiple separate sources of information simultaneously in order to understand the materialand the benefit of using supporting visual and auditory modalities.
In their review of over studies in What makes great teaching? In order of strength, those factors included:According to Tech News, the breakdown of learning styles varies, but a typical K classroom contains 30 percent visual learners, 25 percent auditory learners and 15 percent kinesthetic learners, with the remaining 30 percent consisting of students with mixed learning styles.
Learning Styles: Visual, Auditory, Read/Write, Kinesthetic There are many models and theories about learning styles. This particular system about an individual’s learning. 5 Types of Imagery. Different types of imagery correspond to different senses. Are you evoking all of them with these words? When we hear the word imagery, we usually associate it with some form of visual representation in our minds.
The acronym VARK stands for visual, aural, read and kinesthetic comprised if 16 question to analysis and gain a better understanding of personal learning styles (VARK a guide to learning styles, ). Both types of visual learners tend to take detailed notes.
They prefer to be able to see what they are learning and might close their eyes in order to visualize or remember something.
Here is mine as an example Visual 2. Aural 3. Read/Write 8. Kinesthetic 3. I have a strong read/write learning preference. I agree with these results because I learn well when I read /5(3).