Excerpt from Research Paper: Song of Love Music is a universal language shared and understood across all countries and cultures. It can help express emotions and create an array of reactions, ranging from relaxed feelings to the most motivated ones. Apart from this, music can be used therapeutically for people who face difficulties physically, emotionally, cognitively or socially Bodner.
At present, there is no clear consensus on which criteria e. Using a relative normative approach, some researchers establish a percentile criterion e. For example, all students scoring below the 25th percentile may be considered at risk. According to Torgesena "potential problem with such a normative approach is that, by definition, there will always be students who fall in the lowest quartile and thus will always appear to be at risk, regardless of their performance level" p.
Absolute performance levels or benchmarks e. For example, 3rd-grade students who read fewer than 70 words correct per minute at the beginning of the school year may be considered to be at risk.
In addition to cut-scores for normative and benchmark approaches, performance standards for severity of academic difficulty and level of risk have been used in research on screening measures. According to a review by Jenkins et al. The use of these additional criteria greatly affects the proportion of students identified as at risk.
Severity criterion as unsatisfactory.
Severity criterion as very unsatisfactory. When the goal of the universal screening measure is to find the students with the most severe academic deficits, very unsatisfactory appears to be the better criterion. This criterion finds the lowest performers, those suspected of having a learning disability.
Universal screening measures often specify a level of risk for failing to meet a later criterion.
For example, a screening measure could classify a student as at some risk or as at high risk for not meeting the standard. When Does Tier 2 Begin?
Once a student has been designated at risk by one or more screening measures, the next step is to establish when more intensive Tier 2 interventions will begin. Two methods have emerged from the literature: In the direct method, results of a one-time universal screening measure determine Tier 2 status.
For example, in the work of Vellutino et al. In both studies, the rationale for this decision was that at-risk students should not be delayed in receiving interventions due to further observation and progress monitoring. A limitation to this method is that it assumes a high level of accuracy for identifying true positives, based on one administration of the screening measure.
In the progress-monitoring method, all at-risk students determined by screening measures are monitored for an additional amount of time before they receive Tier 2 interventions. Because entry into Tier 2 is determined by dual-discrepancy e. This method provides more reliable assessment of progress than a "one-shot" assessment; however, it delays interventions for students in need of the most help.
Length of follow-up progress monitoring varies in the literature. For instance, Compton, Fuchs, Fuchs, and Bryant used weekly progress monitoring for 5 weeks to determine Tier 2 eligibility. In contrast, Speece and Case used monthly progress monitoring over a 6-month period to determine Tier 2 eligibility.
There is conflicting research evidence as to the preference of the direct or progress-monitoring method. For instance, Compton et al. With no clear consensus, choice of method is ultimately a local school district preference.
Conclusion and Directions for Future Research Universal screening is paramount in identifying students at risk for academic difficulty in an RTI model. Correct identification of at-risk students is especially important so the right students receive appropriate tiered interventions.Why is this an “A” paper?
This student-generated research paper demonstrates the following: clear focus (evident in thesis and relevant information/details).
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