Discussion of the four key health issues Page last updated: Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of death among females, accounting for more than one in every three 37 per cent female deaths. Importantly, many cardiovascular disease deaths are premature, as they occur in women aged less than 84 years, which is the current life expectancy for women. However, the public health impact of cardiovascular disease among women is wider than the deaths it causes.
Abstract Child mortality remains a significant concern globally with 6 million deaths in children under 5 years of age in In relation to Millennium Development Goal MDG 4 to reduce vaccine-preventable disease mortality and morbidity by two-thirds by the end of compared toSub-Saharan Africa is unlikely to reach this tar- get with the current projection.
In Kenya, childhood mortality remains highly elevated and this can be correlated to a number of risk factors including poor physical environments, limited access to resources and medical facilities, lack of maternal welfare and antenatal care, and outbreaks of infectious disease.
Despite there has been some effort to address the health and living conditions of slum dwellers, more actions are required to improve the health and quality of life in this population. Some fundamental examples include interventions relating to immunisation programmes, water sanitation, and safe waste removal.
Diversity in racial and ethnic origins, cultural taboos and sensitivities must be considered when formulating policies and interventions. This article will explore and discuss barriers and focus on strategies and changes that can be implemented to raise the health status.
In particular, immunisation strategies will be examined and discussed as a major intervention in the minimisation of childhood mortality rates.
This rapid rate of population growth in urban areas is concerning as it exceeds the rate of possible economic development  and is not accompanied by equivalent socio-economic and environmental development. There is also insecurity of tenure and marginalisation from the formal sector, including basic health services.
It is an area of concentrated disadvantage. Slums are characterised by population density and diversity where the population is often transient, thus erecting unique barriers which stand in the way of achieving health, especially in the context of continuing care.
Over 70 percent of the population in Nairobi resides in informal settlements where the physical environment is hazardous to health and is characterised by: These poor living conditions leave a negative impact on the health of the residents as there is limited access to safe drinking water, sanitation, garbage and sewage treatment.
All of these factors add to the increased prevalence and spread of pathogens, thus perpetuating constant infection and risk of an epidemic in slum dwellers. However, these private institutions are generally managed by unlicensed or poorly trained professionals, sometimes non-professionals, and are often associated with poorer health outcomes.
Water, in particular, is concern with difficulty with access, cost, and quality. The access points for water collection is only located far from their houses, and water collection may even only be available on certain days and times.
These barriers result in resident using sewage for bathing and washing, or using other sources, such as borewater and rainwater. All of these sources are highly contaminated and perpetuates the spread of waterborne diseases.
Furthermore, the people who undergo the rural to urban migration in search of employment often have no realistic alternative to life as slum dwellers. In addition, difficulty accessing education, employment, or recreational facilities translates to unlimited free time, which further increases their risk to alcohol, drugs, and crime, which is prevalent in informal settlements.
In essence, slum dwellers are often employed and exploited on a day-to-day basis on low wages. Only 14 percent of the population have completed high school, and 33 percent have not attained education beyond primary school.
Within the slums, schooling facilities are inadequate and often inappropriate.
Most schools are initiated as business ventures and do not meet the requirements for a learning institution.The Frank Fenner Foundation publishes papers of interest for members and the community at large on themes concerning the relationship between health and wellbeing of people and of the environment.
Research Essay on Orson Welles' Films essay Archetypal montages can be described as a state of graduation in a sequential pattern of scenes with the elapse of time in the development of certain feelings that are readily and easily observable. Type 2 Diabetes is a serious health issue affecting Australians at an alarming rate.
Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in Australia, and contributes to significant illness and disability. - Type 2 diabetes is a chronic illness that is a result of the body’s insulin not functioning correctly. It was formerly called adult-onset or insulin-dependent.
It is also the most common kind of diabetes accounting for about 90 percent of all diabetes cases. Type 2 diabetes can also cause obesity and high cholesterol.
Jan 04, · The fundamental problem in operations here on Earth is that humans treat the world as being their domain to be used to meet their needs and wants without physical constraint. A teenager in Germany recently lost his driver's license less than an hour after passing the exam to earn it, getting caught doing nearly double the speed limit on the way home..