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The status of the believer in Islam remained in practice a juridical question, not a matter for theologians or philosophers to decide. Except in regard to the fundamental questions of the existence of God, Islamic revelationand future reward and punishment, the juridical conditions for declaring someone an unbeliever or beyond the pale of Islam were so demanding as to make it almost impossible to make a valid declaration of this sort about a professing Muslim.
In the course of events in Islamic history, representatives of certain theological movements, who happened to be jurists and who succeeded in converting rulers to their cause, made those rulers declare in favour of their movements and even encouraged them to persecute their opponents.
Thus there arose in some localities and periods a semblance of an official, or orthodoxdoctrine. Together with these other disciplinesIslamic theology is concerned with ascertaining the facts and context of the Islamic revelation and with understanding its meaning and implications as to what Muslims should believe and do after the revelation had ceased and the Islamic community had to chart its own way.
It remained true to its original traditional and religious point of view, confined itself within the limits of the Islamic revelation, and assumed that these limits as it understood them were identical with the limits of truth.
The Hellenistic legacy The pre-Islamic and non-Islamic legacy with which early Islamic theology came into contact included almost all the religious thought that had survived and was being defended or disputed in EgyptSyriaIranand India.
At first, access to this legacy was primarily through conversations and disputations with such men, rather than through full and accurate translations of sacred texts or theological and philosophic writings, although some translations from Pahlavi a Middle Persian dialectSyriacand Greek must also have been available.
The characteristic approach of early Islamic theology to non-Muslim literature was through oral disputations, the starting points of which were the statements presented or defended orally by the opponents.
Oral disputation continued to be used in theology for centuries, and most theological writings reproduce or imitate that form. From such oral and written disputations, writers on religions and sects collected much of their information about non-Muslim sects. Much of Hellenistic post-3rd-century-bce Greek culturalIranian, and Indian religious thought was thus encountered in an informal and indirect manner.
From the 9th century onward, theologians had access to an increasingly larger body of translated texts, but by then they had taken most of their basic positions. By this time Islamic theology had coined a vast number of technical terms, and theologians e. The 9th-century translators availed themselves of these advances to meet the needs of patrons.
Theology and sectarianism Despite the notion of a unified and consolidated community, as taught by the Prophet Muhammad, serious differences arose within the Muslim community immediately after his death. According to the Sunni s—the traditionalist faction whose followers now constitute the majority branch of Islam—the Prophet had designated no successor.
Thus, the Muslims at Medina decided to elect a chief. His preference was general knowledge. In other words, good works were an integral part of faith and not extraneous to it.
They incessantly resorted to rebellion and, as a result, were virtually wiped out during the first two centuries of Islam. It forced the religious leadership of the community to formulate a bulwark against religious intolerance and fanaticism.
Are human acts the result of a free human choiceor are they predetermined by God?
This question brought with it a whole series of questions about the nature of God and of human nature. As a consequence of translations of Greek philosophical and scientific works into Arabic during the 8th and 9th centuries and the controversies of Muslims with dualists e.
They claimed that human reasonindependent of revelation, was capable of discovering what is good and what is evil, although revelation corroborated the findings of reason.
Human beings would, therefore, be under moral obligation to do the right even if there were no prophets and no divine revelation. Revelation has to be interpreted, therefore, in conformity with the dictates of rational ethics.
Yet revelation is neither redundant nor passive. Its function is twofold. First, its aim is to aid humanity in choosing the right, because in the conflict between good and evil human beings often falter and make the wrong choice against their rational judgment.
God, therefore, must send prophets, for he must do the best for humanity; otherwise, the demands of divine grace and mercy cannot be fulfilled. Secondly, revelation is also necessary to communicate the positive obligations of religion—e.
God knows, wills, and acts by virtue of his Essence and not through attributes of knowledge, will, and power. Also, if God were to withhold punishment for evil and forgive it, this would be as unjust as withholding reward for righteousness.
There can be neither undeserved punishment nor undeserved reward; otherwise, good may just as well turn into evil and evil into good. From this position it follows that there can be no intercession on behalf of sinners. The issues raised by these early schisms and the positions adopted by them enabled the Sunni orthodoxy to define its own doctrinal positions in turn.
Much of the content of Sunni theology was, therefore, supplied by its reactions to those schisms. The way of the majority With the rise of the orthodoxy, then, the foremost and elemental factor that came to be emphasized was the notion of the majority of the community.The Deobandi movement sees itself as a scholastic tradition, situated within Sunni Islam.
It grew out of the Islamic scholastic tradition of Medieval Transoxania and Mughal India, and it considers its visionary forefather to be Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (), the celebrated Indian Islamic scholar.. Fiqh (Islamic law) Deobandis are strong .
Nick Wood Movements essay October 15, Hamas The word Hamas is an acronym, from the Arabic for Islamic Resistance urbanagricultureinitiative.com grew out of the ideology and practice of the Islamic fundamentalist Muslim Brotherhood movement that arose in Egypt in the s. Sheikh Ahmed Yassin founded this Palestinian Islamic group in during the first intifada, as a result of the Israeli taking .
Hamas is the main Palestinian armed resistance group, but the Islamist movement has struggled with governance since assuming control of Gaza.
HAMAS (in Arabic, an acronym for "Harakat Al-Muqawama Al-Islamia" -- Islamic Resistance Movement -- and a word meaning zeal) is a radical Islamic fundamentalist organization which became active in the early stages of the intifada, operating primarily in the Gaza District but also in Judea and Samaria.
German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between and Some of these engaged in active resistance with plans to remove Adolf Hitler from power by assassination and overthrow his regime..
The term German resistance . Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization. It has a social service wing, Dawah, and a military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam urbanagricultureinitiative.com Chief of the Political Bureau: Mousa Abu Marzouq and Khaled Mashal.