Character-based ethics A right act is the action a virtuous person would do in the same circumstances.
Virtue ethicists discuss the nature and definition of virtues and other related problems. These include how virtues are acquired, how they are applied in various real life contexts, and whether they are rooted in a universal human nature or in a plurality of cultures.
Key concepts The western tradition's key concepts derive from ancient Greek philosophy. These theories include arete excellence or virtuephronesis practical or moral wisdomand eudaimonia flourishing. A virtue is generally agreed to be a character trait, such as a habitual action or settled sentiment.
A virtue is thus to be distinguished from single actions or feelings. It is concerned with many other actions as well, with emotions and emotional reactions, choices, values, desires, perceptions, attitudes, interests, expectations and sensibilities.
To possess a virtue is to be a certain sort of person with a certain complex mindset. Hence the extreme recklessness of attributing a virtue on the basis of a single action. Practical wisdom is an acquired trait that enables its possessor to identify the thing to do in any given situation.
It characterizes the well-lived life. According to Aristotle, the most prominent exponent of eudaimonia in the Western philosophical tradition, "eudaimonia" is the proper goal of human life.
It consists of exercising the characteristic human quality— reason —as the soul's most proper and nourishing activity.
In his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle, like Plato before him, argued that the pursuit of eudaimonia is an "activity of the soul in accordance with perfect virtue", which further could only properly be exercised in the characteristic human community—the polis or city-state.
Although eudaimonia was first popularized by Aristotle, it now belongs to the tradition of virtue theories generally. For the virtue theorist, eudaimonia describes that state achieved by the person who lives the proper human life, an outcome that can be reached by practicing the virtues.
A virtue is a habit or quality that allows the bearer to succeed at his, her, or its purpose. The virtue of a knife, for example, is sharpness; among the virtues of a racehorse is speed. Thus, to identify the virtues for human beings, one must have an account of what the human purpose is.
History of virtue Like much of the Western tradition, virtue theory seems to have originated in ancient Greek philosophy. Virtue ethics began with Socratesand was subsequently developed further by PlatoAristotleand the Stoics.
Another way to say this is that in virtue ethics, morality stems from the identity or character of the individual, rather than being a reflection of the actions or consequences thereof of the individual. Today, there is debate among various adherents of virtue ethics concerning what specific virtues are morally praiseworthy.
However, most theorists agree that morality comes as a result of intrinsic virtues. Intrinsic virtues are the common link that unites the disparate normative philosophies into the field known as virtue ethics. Plato and Aristotle's treatment of virtues are not the same.
Plato believes virtue is effectively an end to be sought, for which a friend might be a useful means. Aristotle states that the virtues function more as means to safeguard human relations, particularly authentic friendship, without which one's quest for happiness is frustrated.
Discussion of what were known as the Four Cardinal Virtues — wisdomjusticefortitudeand temperance — can be found in Plato's Republic. The virtues also figure prominently in Aristotle's moral theory see below. Virtue theory was inserted into the study of history by moralistic historians such as LivyPlutarchand Tacitus.
The Greek idea of the virtues was passed on in Roman philosophy through Cicero and later incorporated into Christian moral theology by St.
During the scholastic period, the most comprehensive consideration of the virtues from a theological perspective was provided by St. Though the tradition receded into the background of European philosophical thought in these centuries, the term "virtue" remained current during this period, and in fact appears prominently in the tradition of classical republicanism or classical liberalism.
Contemporary "aretaic turn" Although some Enlightenment philosophers e.Ethics and Economics in Zsolnai Laszlo ed. Handbook of Business Ethics: Ethics in the New Economy, Oxford, Peter Lang AG, Jonsson, b P.O.
Jonsson On utilitarianism vs virtue ethics as foundations of economic choice theoryurbanagricultureinitiative.com In line with the theory of moral virtue Aristotle contends that to achieve these aims and reach eudaimonia, one of the most important lessons Aristotle teaches in the theory of moral virtue is strike a balance, or hit a mean between extremes in behavior, thought, and urbanagricultureinitiative.com › Home › More Subjects › Philosophy.
· It is to be noted that the whole thrust of Aristotle’s virtue theory of ethics presupposes that ethics is about becoming a certain kind of person! This is also why the concept of ‘character’ is useful in describing the key motivations behind Aristotle’s theory. In a play the performance of certain acts identify a particular urbanagricultureinitiative.com · Web view.
· A central feature of virtue ethics is its concept of professional development as fundamentally a moral process; "one cannot be practically rational without being just - or indeed without the other central virtues" (MacIntyre, , p.
)urbanagricultureinitiative.com?article=&. · virtue ethics, for, as it stands, it comes too close to being a truism that just reg- isters a link between the concept of right action and the concept of a virtuous agent; deontologists or indeed utilitarians may well espouse it urbanagricultureinitiative.com · SophiaOmni 1 urbanagricultureinitiative.com Virtue Ethics and the Challenge of Relativity Tracy Kline One of the most interesting attempts in recent times to revive a theory of the virtues urbanagricultureinitiative.com