Self-determination has been an eternal dream of our communities. Some, because of geography, and also organizational structure, have succeeded in maintaining a certain margin of this self-determination, which has always resulted in a tense relation with the nation-state. The large majority of indigenous communities have endured subjugation: We think this is a very important moment to describe and thereby, from the practice, to understand what is or was our self-determination, as well as to sketch the self-determination that we desire, the self-determination to which we aspire.
The Concept of Respect Among the main questions about respect that philosophers have addressed are these: Philosophers have variously identified it as a mode of behavior, a form of treatment, a kind of valuing, a type of attention, a motive, an attitude, a feeling, a tribute, a principle, a duty, an entitlement, a moral virtue, an epistemic virtue: Can an object come to deserve less or no respect?
What, if anything, does it add to morality over and above the conduct, attitudes, and character traits required or encouraged by various moral principles or virtues?
For example, answers concerning one kind of respect can diverge significantly from those about another kind. Much philosophical work has gone into explicating differences and links among the various kinds.
One general distinction is between respect simply as behavior and respect as an attitude or feeling which may or may not be expressed in or signified by behavior.
We might speak of drivers respecting the speed limit, hostile forces as respecting a cease fire agreement, or AIDS as not respecting national borders, and in such cases we can be referring simply to behavior which avoids violation of or interference with some boundary, limit, or rule, without any reference to attitudes, feelings, intentions, or dispositions, and even, as in the case of the AIDS virus, without imputing agency Bird In such cases the behavior is regarded as constitutive of respecting.
In other cases, we take respect to be or to express or signify an attitude or feeling, as when we speak of having respect for another person or for nature or of certain behaviors as showing respect or disrespect.
In what follows, I will focus chiefly on respect as attitude or feeling.
Before looking at differences, however, it is useful first to note some elements common among varieties. An attitude of respect is, most generally, a relation between a subject and an object in which the subject responds to the object from a certain perspective in some appropriate way.
Respect necessarily has an object: While a very wide variety of things can be appropriate objects of one kind of respect or another, the subject of respect the respecter is always a person, that is, a conscious rational being capable of recognizing and acknowledging things, of self-consciously and intentionally responding to them, of having and expressing values with regard to them, and of being accountable for disrespecting or failing to respect them.
Though animals may love or fear us, only persons can respect and disrespect us or anything else.
Respect is a responsive relation, and ordinary discourse about respect identifies several key elements of the response, including attention, deference, judgment, acknowledgment, valuing, and behavior. Thus, respecting something contrasts with being oblivious or indifferent to it, ignoring or quickly dismissing it, neglecting or disregarding it, or carelessly or intentionally misidentifying it.
The respect one accords her in each case will be different, yet all will involve attention to her as she really is as a judge, threat, etc. It is in virtue of this aspect of careful attention that respect is sometimes thought of as an epistemic virtue.
As responsive, respect is object-generated rather than wholly subject-generated, something that is owed to, called for, deserved, elicited, or claimed by the object.
It thus is motivational: When we respect something, we heed its call, accord it its due, acknowledge its claim to our attention.
Thus, respect involves deference, in the most basic sense of yielding: At the same time, respect is also an expression of agency:Kantianism and Utilitarianism This Essay Kantianism and Utilitarianism and other 64,+ term papers, He considers respect for persons (a.k.a the Kantian respect) to be the fundamental moral principle of ethical philosophy.
This I will call the principle of autonomy of the will in contrast to all other principles which I accordingly. Autonomy in Medicine Finneaus Parker National University February 8, Dr.
Schlitz Autonomy is the “personal rule of the self that is free from both controlling interferences by others and from personal limitations that prevent meaningful choice” (Pantilat, ). More Essay Examples on.
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Paternalism In Mental Health Treatment. The assignment for this Ethics category was to reexamine Mr. Jacob & # ; s intervention.
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accepting the support of his family.
Unfortunately, it appeared by this account that the families psychologists 'respect the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, self-determination, and. In biomedical research, the concept of autonomy is embodied in the principle of respect for persons or autonomy, which is one of the basic principles of research ethics.
The Belmont Report was the ﬁrst document that highlighted the notion of respect for persons in research ethics although its application was documented in the Nuremberg Code.