Then along came Amenhotep IV, who decided to abolish the worship of many gods, in favour of the monotheistic adoration of the 'Aten'. He also moved the capital of Egypt to a virgin site and named it Akhetaten [Horizon of the Aten]. The art of ancient Egypt was also radically changed from the perfect and formal representations of the gods, people and life of the Egyptians, to an art form that was more relaxed and showed many scenes of Akhenaten, his wife, Nefertiti and their daughters in loving, family embraces. The artistic representation of the Aten is that of a sun disc emanating rays of light with hands on the ends of the rays holding the signs of life.
At or shortly after the time of his accession, Amenhotep IV seems to have married the chief queen of his reign, Nefertiti. Each ray ended in a tiny hand with which the Aton might offer the sign of life to the king and queen or even embrace their limbs and crowns.
King Akhenaton left with Queen Nefertiti and three of their daughters under the rays of the sun god Aton, Egypt, midth century bce; in the State Museums, Berlin. The Aton temples at Karnak therefore consisted of a series of vast open-air courts in which there was virtually no interior space at all.
The only preserved architecture from Karnak indicates that these courts were flanked by roofed porticos with colossal statues of the king placed against the pillars.
The new temples were built entirely of relatively small blocks of sandstone of uniform size, known as talatat, apparently for speed in construction—an understandable convenience, considering the scale of the project. The walls were decorated with reliefs executed entirely in sunk relief, a method well-suited for exterior surfaces exposed to direct sunlight.
The scenes, reconstructed from thousands of individual talatat blocks, portray the royal couple and their eldest daughter, Meritatonengaged primarily in making offerings to the Aton, although scenes of offering-bearers, cattle designated for slaughter, foreigners in obeisance, and detailed depictions of the royal palace are also abundant.
One series of reliefs shows Amenhotep IV at the celebration of his jubilee, a ceremony normally observed by kings of the New Kingdom c. One temple at Karnak shows only Nefertiti as the primary officiant before the Aton, sometimes accompanied by Meritaton—an unprecedented privilege for a mere queen.
In addition, the enormous expanse of the exterior temple wall provided a stone canvas on which experiments in large-scale composition were undertaken. The introduction of a new cult was accompanied by innovations in the portrayal of the human form in both relief and sculpture.
The royal family was depicted with features that, by comparison with standard conventions of Egyptian artappear noticeably exaggerated: Facial features were characterized by angular, slitted eyes, fleshy lips, nasolabial wrinkles, and holes for ear plugs, while the princesses are often each depicted with an inflated, egg-shaped cranium.
Much scholarly debate has centred on whether these features reflect the actual appearance of the king—extended by convention to his family and retainers—and various theories have been argued about the presumed pathology of Amenhotep IV and what medical conditions might produce the anatomical traits shown.
The Karnak colossi in particular show these new characteristics in notably exaggerated form, including one that apparently depicts the king without male genitalia. Whether such statues were intended to represent the male and female element combined in the person of the divine king or whether they are simply statues of Nefertiti has not been satisfactorily settled.
More simply, the remarkable innovations of Amenhotep IV in several cultural spheres at once may be reasonably viewed as a manifestation of the intimate connection in Egyptian culture between art and religion. That Amenhotep IV was personally involved in these changes seems clear: That same year Akhenaten moved his capital to a new site some miles km north of Thebes.
Construction began apace on a new series of royal residences and open-air temples, the latter built entirely from limestone talatat and decorated in a manner similar to that of their predecessors at Karnak. The central city was built around the vast main temple to the Aton, called Gempaaton, and a secondary sanctuary, called the Mansion of the Aton.
A large formal palace connected to a royal estate by means of a bridge over the main north-south road was located nearby. The road itself led to a northern palace and a riverside settlement laid out along the northern limits of Akhetaton.
The royal and religious structures of the central city were surrounded with administrative offices, storerooms, and workshops, as well as extensive suburbs of private villas and smaller private houses.First off, unless you’ve read the Torah and the Talmud you are very mistaken.
Leave it to a Jew to correct Christians. El is an ancient god of the ocean reputed to have been worshiped by . Akhenaten, also spelled Akhenaton, Akhnaton, or Ikhnaton, also called Amenhotep IV, Greek Amenophis, king (–36 bce) of ancient Egypt of the 18th dynasty, who established a new cult dedicated to the Aton, the sun’s disk (hence his assumed name, Akhenaten, meaning “beneficial to .
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela born 18 July is a South African politician who was the President of South Africa from to , the first ever to be elected in a fully representative and multi-racial election.
His administration focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid, as . Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with a multitude of deities who were believed to be present in, and in control of, the forces and elements of nature. Artistic Reforms Immediately upon his accession as the sole king of Egypt, Akhenaten changed the style of the representation of himself and his family.
This can be seen rather dramatically in the Theban tomb of Ramose, who was Amenhotep III's southern vizier. The Pharaoh’s Sun-Disc: The Religious Reforms of Akhenaten and the Cult of the Aten The 18th Dynasty Pharaoh Akhenaten, known to many as the “Heretic King,” made significant changes to the religious institutions of Ancient Egypt during his reign in.