Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elementsand information about the source is kept to the basics. End this element with a period.
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Electronic Sources Web Publications Summary: MLA Modern Language Association style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.
Thus, when including the medium of publication for electronic sources, list the medium as Web.
It is always a good idea to maintain personal copies of electronic information, when possible. It is good practice to print or save Web pages or, better, using a program like Adobe Acrobat, to keep your own copies for future reference.
Also, you might use the Bookmark function in your Web browser in order to return to documents more easily. Because Web addresses are not static i.
Break URLs only after slashes. The Internet Classics Archive. Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources If publishing information is unavailable for entries that require publication information such as publisher or sponsor names and publishing dates, MLA requires the use of special abbreviations to indicate that this information is not available.
When an entry requires that you provide a page but no pages are provided in the source as in the case of an online-only scholarly journal or a work that appears in an online-only anthologyuse the abbreviation n.
Not every Web page will provide all of the following information.
However, collect as much of the following information as possible both for your citations and for your research notes: Remember that some Print publications have Web publications with slightly different names. They may, for example, include the additional information or otherwise modified information, like domain names [e.
Any version numbers available, including revisions, posting dates, volumes, or issue numbers. Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date. Take note of any page numbers if available. Date you accessed the material. Citing an Entire Web Site It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated, and information available on one date may no longer be available later.
If a URL is required or you chose to include one, be sure to include the complete address for the site. Remember to use n. Editor, author, or compiler name if available. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory.This research was supported in part by a grant from the Sample Grant Program.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Elizabeth Angeli, Department of English, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN /5(1). Welcome to the Purdue OWL This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
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This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes.
This handout provides detailed information about how to write research papers including discussing research papers as a genre, choosing topics, and finding sources. Welcome to the Purdue OWL Purdue OWL.
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