When applied to the investment industry, the term usually refers to sell-side research, or investment research produced by brokerage houses. Such research is disseminated to the institutional and retail clients of the brokerage that produces it. Research produced by the buy-side, which includes pension funds, mutual funds and portfolio managersis usually for internal use only and is not distributed to external parties.
According Legal research report the doctrine of precedent a court is bound by the decisions of a court above it and, usually, by a court of equivalent standing.
Superior courts have the power to overrule decisions of lower courts and in certain cases to overrule their own decisions. It important to know in which court a decision was made, and to Legal research report that a Supreme Court or House of Lords decision is worth more than a decision made in the High Court.
It is also necessary to assess the chances of a particular court not following one of its own decisions, as the rules on the application of the doctrine of precedent on this point may vary from court to court.
The Judicature Acts of created a court hierarchy, which was completed when the House of Lords became the final Court of Appeal following the Appellate Jurisdiction Act The modern doctrine of the binding force of judicial precedent only fully emerged when there was good law reporting and a settled judicial hierarchy.
As well as the binding precedent discussed above, there is also persuasive precedent from a high court in another jurisdiction.
Persuasive precedent is often argued where there are no similar cases in a jurisdiction. In new areas of law, such as virtual property and IVF, persuasive precedent may be the only precedent available. Court hierarchy This diagram shows the heirarchy of the UK courts in a simplified form.
Reference can be made to the Court of Justice from any court in the system. Structure of a law report One of the first things a law student has to do is learn how to navigate and interpret a law report quickly. A law report is more than just the judgment.
It begins with the names of the parties, the date of the hearing and the names of the judge or judges, and, usually, the court. Then follow catchwords, which are indexing terms and the headnote, which is a summary of the facts and the judgment by the barrister reporting the case.
The judgment sometimes begins several pages after the beginning of the report. Judgments in the Supreme Court and, previously, House of Lords are generally 'handed down' in print form. Judges in the civil and appellate courts both criminal and civil will usually reflect upon a case before reaching a final decision.
In criminal cases after the jury has reached a verdict in the trial court, the judge may sentence immediately or call for reports and sentence at a later date. In other courts, decisions of judges are delivered orally extempore and recorded verbatim by the court stenographer.
Official and unofficial law reporters attend court and take shorthand notes. The following is an excerpt from a typical law report, with the various parts indicated on the right, or you can watch this short video opens in YouTube About law reports Law reporting was regularised in the late nineteenth century.
Prior tobarristers attended hearings and wrote up and published reports of cases, often under their own name. These reports are generally referred to as 'nominate reports'. Decisions of the Supreme Court previously House of Lords and the Court of Appeal predominate because of the weight accorded them by the doctrine of precedent.
Only a small proportion of the thousands of first instance cases in the High Court are reported. This means that cases of specialist interest may be overlooked, whilst cases that add nothing new but give an impression of broad coverage may be included.
Many judgments are reported in more than one law reports series, some of which are more authoritative than others. These are the most authoritative reports; they contain a summary of the argument.
Other series of reports and official transcripts of judgment may only be used when a case is not reported in the Official Law Reports'. These reports include summaries of counsels' argument.
These series may also include judgments from the High Court, District Court and tribunals. Judgments in Volumes 2 and 3 of the WLRs are generally republished in the Official Law Reports after the judge has checked the judgment and additional material such as the argument of counsel has been prepared.
Official transcripts, identified by the case's neutral citation, should only be cited in court if they contain a relevant statement of legal principle not found in a reported case Practice Direction: Citation of Authorities .
However many academics read judgments as soon as they are handed down and before they are reported in a law report series so cases are often cited on reading lists with only party names and the neutral citation.
Transcripts are generally freely available on the British and Irish Legal Information Institute website www. Understanding case citations Contemporary cases have three main elements in the citation: For judgments prior to the introduction of neutral citations, cite party names in italicsthe report of the judgment and the abbreviated name of the court, in brackets.
Party or case Names The names of the parties in a judgment should be in italic or underlined.Find out the latest state legislative activity in regards to medical marijuana.
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You cannot add watery text about anything into the paper. Your statement should be supported with examples or reference other profound research and academical works. ABA Legal Technology Resource Center Search more than online full-text journal/law reviews and related sources, including Congressional Research Service Reports.
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