The Destruction of the World Trade Center:
People can remember with great clarity what they were doing or to whom they were speaking when they learned of the crisis—whether via a sister's phone call or a first-hand glimpse of the World Trade Center on fire. Decades ago, psychologists theorized that the brain imprints such details into its memory, like a photograph, when we learn of sudden, tragic national events.
These highly emotional recollections were dubbed "flashbulb memories"—but the notion of photographic accuracy didn't bear out in later research. Last month, the scientists did a year follow-up survey—data yet to be analyzed—making the project the longest prospective study of how flashbulb memories change over time.
Phelpsa lead investigator of the survey. By then, the second plane had hit the towers. There was nobody else in the office at that point, but one person. I went to his office, which looked out at the World Trade Center, and we saw one tower go down.
You just couldn't even believe it. And then it was kind of a weird day. Some people came into the office. You really couldn't focus on work.
So eventually I went home, watched CNN and ended up trying to go give blood. Phone service was hit or miss that day, but John Gabrieli, a friend and neuroscientist who was then at Stanford, managed to call me.
He just wanted to make sure I was okay. Then after a day or so, we decided to do it. We worked very fast. John started putting the survey questionnaire together with Kevin Ochsner, a postdoc in his group.
And I think taking our survey was something that people thought would contribute to the greater good. At the time, it would have been hard for us to work on anything else. The streets were closed around NYU and the campus shut down.
The study helped us stay busy and yet feel relevant to what was going on. Emotion kind of focuses you on a few details but lets you ignore other details. And if you are highly aroused by fear, that emotion helps you store things in your memory better, in a storage process called consolidation that depends on the interaction of the amygdala and hippocampus.
But what we've known for a while is that emotion gives you a stronger confidence in your memory than it does necessarily in the accuracy. Usually, when a memory has highly vivid details and you're confident in those details, that means you're likely to be right.
Confidence often goes hand in hand with accuracy. But when something is highly emotional, they often get separated. Everyone thinks, "Oh, I never would forget that. You can't even convince people that their memories are wrong. All you can say is that data would suggest your memory's wrong.
And we think we do, and that's the real contrast. Whereas, if I told you that you don't remember the details of your 26th birthday, you wouldn't be surprised, necessarily. It's not the case that you don't have a fairly vivid image in your head of the planes crashing into the building.
Our measure of accuracy is consistency with what people told us in the survey the week after the attack. At the third survey, three years after the attack, consistency was 57 percent. So people were only a little more than 50 percent right for a lot of the details. And yet overall, for all those details, people's confidence in their memories was, on average, greater than 4 on a scale of 1 to 5.There are many conspiracy theories that attribute the planning and execution of the September 11 attacks against the United States to parties other than, or in addition to, al-Qaeda including that there was advance knowledge of the attacks among high-level government officials.
Government investigations and independent reviews have rejected these theories. Fahrenheit research paper - math homework help high school Uncategorized - September 6, Hello there choose us. we deliver quality essays with zero plagiarism and best citations. just d.m us. It’s always amazing that people think that discussing climate modification is something new.
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