Addiction is a universal phenomenon. Hence, it can affect anyone. Race, gender, location, social status and age do not limit its scope.
Term Papers 4 pages, words Discuss the importance and interplay of social, psychological and biological factors in the course of heroin addiction. What therapeutic approaches can be used to treat this form of drug dependence?
Heroin exerts its main effects through psychological mechanisms of action, the user feels a sense of great warmth and well-being and views the world with greatly reduced anxiety and emotional distress.
These feelings last for a relatively short period of time of around hours. With repeated use the user develops tolerance and the user will need greater quantities of the substance to achieve the same effect.
In time, as addiction develops the user lifestyle alters to accommodate spending an increasing amount of time obtaining and consuming drugs.
This is likely to lead to difficulties in employment and relationships, with less attention being given to their responsibilities and the needs of others.
As a result they may turn to criminal activity to fund their habit, likely entailing physical and emotional hazards and bring them into contact with a dubious assortment of people.
This essay will examine how the social, psychological and biological factors interact in heroin addiction and look at what therapeutic approaches exist to deal with this form of dependency.
Substance addiction, in general, is defined as the continued use of a substance despite it being clear that it is harming the individual DSM IV, The most common form of treatment in heroin addiction is that of methadone maintenance treatment MMT.
Internet addiction shares many symptoms as substance addictions such as alcohol, gambling, or even drugs. In some instances users check their electronic mailbox from twenty to thirty times per day Le. Methadone is a synthetic opioid which acts on the opioid receptors in the brain, producing many of the same effects as heroin, thus acting as replacement therapy and reducing craving.
Craving represents a feeling of desire to approach a pleasant stimulus Oldham and Wright, At higher dosages methadone can block the euphoric effects of heroin and other similar opioid drugs, reducing the motivation to use illicit substances.
MMT has been shown to be medically safe Williamson, Foreman and White, even when used for a long period of time or with pregnant women Kreek, year. However, freedom from the physiological effects of addiction and mind altering substances does not cure the substance user.
He individual is likely to find that issues still exist which led to them developing a dependency in the first place. Methadone simply offers the user the opportunity to obtain treatment to address these long term needs in order to stay abstinent.
Studies have consistently shown a reduction in problem behaviours at follow up; fewer psychological and physical problems and involvement in crime is greatly reduced even at six month follow up for users on a outpatient MMT programme Gossop and Marsden, The time period of six months is not particularly substantial in relation to drug addiction.
However, methadone itself can become a problem with user changing their loyalties in the absence of other drugs.
This suggests that many users need a crutch on which to depend upon. The use of methadone although less damaging than heroin; still has its disadvantages in the form of drowsiness and feelings fuzziness of the brain.
Methadone treatment programmes vary hugely in terms of their effectiveness; differing on dosage, entry criteria, prescribing limits and on formulation of methadone used Gossop, These factors are may have an impact on the overall effectiveness of the programmes and infer that some participant may be receiving less than optimal treatment.
Gossop in a meta-analysis of how treatment engagement and methadone dose are related to heroin use outcomes among opiate addicts found that not all effective treatments showed direct relationships to outcomes.
Furthermore, not all the outcomes were demonstrated as being effective at both of the follow up points. This shows that heroin addiction is a hugely complicated area affecting users on many levels than simply the biophysiological factors.
Gossop found in a analysis of different methods of treatment that counselling showed some of the most effective factors; the frequency and the content increased on the clients addictionhad both direct and indirect relationship with heroin use outcomes.
This suggests that there is benefit to the client in dealing with issues not directly related to their addiction.
Positive perceptions of the programme at both one and six months was strongly related to treatment services and heroin use at six months suggesting the ability of a programme to deal effectively with the clients needs was also a strong mediator in the outcomes.
However, Kraft, Rothbard and Hadley found a contradictory relationship between supplementary services in the form of counselling and abstinence outcomes. Kraft et al analysed counselling services at three levels of frequency and found that although the enhanced levels of services involving counselling, medical and psychosocial services produced greater outcomes at 24 weeks, only the heroin abstinence levels for the groups remained significant at one year.
This was similar to the results of the moderate treatment level suggesting that the the additional cost of additional services was unworthy. However, motivation for treatment has been found to be predictive of overall outcomes per se.
Once a drug user is free of the drugs in their body other aspects of addiction come into force in the form psychological dsyfunction.
Franken examined the brain processes and found overlap existed between the two areas of neuropsychpharmological and psychological, leading him to suggest an integration of methods would be the best way forward.
The exact mechanisms in the brain involved in reward remain unclear evidence shows that opioids such as heroin act upon an area of the brain known as the necleus accumbens which are known to be heavily involved in the rewarding effects of drug related behaviour Herz, In fact studies have indicated that drug addiction, especially of alcohol and tobacco is occurring at an Drug misuse has implications for the individual involved, for their families and the wider Drug misuse is a result of the Franken, Kroon et al showed that the attentional processes of heroin addicts are biased with more heroin related cues being selectively processed than neutral cues.
He further showed that the response time on such drug related cues was correlated with self reported craving.Discuss the importance and interplay of social, psychological and biological factors in the course of heroin addiction.
What therapeutic approaches can be used to treat this form of drug dependence? Heroin exerts its main effects through psychological mechanisms of action, the user feels a sense of great warmth and well-being and views the world with greatly reduced anxiety and emotional distress.
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Get the knowledge you need in order to pass your classes and more. Only at urbanagricultureinitiative.com". This essay will examine how the social, psychological and biological factors interact in heroin addiction and look at what therapeutic approaches exist to deal with this form of dependency.
Substance addiction, in general, is defined as the continued use of a substance despite it being clear that it is harming the individual (DSM IV, ).
This topic of discussion has taken an interest as Heroin addiction is on the rise in Longford and it has led to the fatality of one person of whom I went to school with due to a Heroin overdose.
Heroin Heroin is a highly addictive drug which comes from morphine, which is obtained from the opium poppy. To initially help you create ideas for your essay topic on your heroin essay, you might want to go over the list of medications on heroin addiction, as enlisted below: Methadone is a substance which exudes the same effect of heroin, sans the adverse effects.
Defining Drug Addiction. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, Last Edited: as the best course of action for addicted individuals. Defining Drug Addiction: South Wales has seen a jump of % in heroin addiction rates. In , the European Union, (EU) estimated that a young European died every hour from a drug overdose.