The Colour of Law "To know the law is the consummate objective of the practicing bar. The maximum value of that knowledge will never be achieved unless and until the lawyer can effectively present his or her knowledge in a persuasive logical argument. But one need not think of politics only as a negative endeavor.
Italian Unification Summary The movement to unite Italy into one cultural and political entity was known as the Risorgimento literally, "resurgence".
Giuseppe Mazzini and his leading pupil, Giuseppe Garibaldi, failed in their attempt to create an Italy united by democracy. Garibaldi, supported by his legion of Red Shirts-- mostly young Italian democrats who used the revolutions as a opportunity for democratic uprising--failed in the face of the resurgence of conservative power in Europe.
However, it was the aristocratic politician named Camillo di Cavour who finally, using the tools of realpolitik, united Italy under the crown of Sardinia. Inas prime minister of Sardinia, he involved the kingdom on the British and French side of the Crimean War, using the peace conference to give international publicity to the cause of Italian unification.
After a planned provocation of Vienna, Austria declared war against Sardinia in and was easily defeated by the French army.
The peace, signed in November in Zurich, Switzerland, joined Lombardy, a formerly Austrian province, with Sardinia. In return, France received Savoy and Nice from Italy--a small price to pay for paving the way to unification.
In the spring ofGaribaldi came out of his self-imposed exile to lead a latter day Red Shirt army, known as the Thousand, in southern Italy. By the end of the year, Garibaldi had liberated Sicily and Naples, which together made up the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
Cavour, however, worried that Garibaldi, a democrat, was replacing Sardinia, a constitutional monarchy, as the unifier of Italy. After securing important victories in these regions, Cavour organized plebiscites, or popular votes, to annex Naples to Sardinia.
Garibaldi, outmaneuvered by the experienced realist Cavour, yielded his territories to Cavour in the name of Italian unification. Reapolitik continued to work for the new Italian nation.
The entire boot of Italy was united under one crown. Commentary Why did Cavour succeed and Garibaldi fail? Was it really only a matter of speed? If Garibaldi had started his crusade earlier and had time to conquer the Papal State before Cavour sent his troops to do so, would Cavour have been forced to give up his territory in the name of a united Italy?
But is speed really the only issue? That, too, is doubtful. It seems that of the two, Cavour alone understood the relationship between national and international events, and was thus able to manipulate foreign policy for his own ends.
Garibaldi, a democrat, a warrior, and an anti-Catholic, was without question on the road to conflict with the monarchies of Europe.
Cavour, with the added credibility of representing a monarch, blended perfectly with the political situation in Europe at the time. Cavour was a realist who practice realistic politics. By keeping the goal in mind, Cavour used international power to achieve his domestic goals.
Garibaldi was forced to use his own grassroots strength, empowered by young Italian democrats interested in an idealistic future for their nation. In that manner, it is quite doubtful that Garibaldi would have ever been able to gain the upper hand in Italy, relative to Cavour.realpolitik in the age of nationalism: the influence of cavour and bismarck’s realpolitik on the development of the european state system from SUCCESSORS OF ROME: FRANCIA, Present.
Kings and Emperors of the Franks, France, Burgundy, Italy, and Germany. Introduction. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, and the occupation of much of Gaul by the Franks, Roman power never returned far enough to come into conflict with the Frankish kingdom (except, to an extent, in the South of Italy).
Camillo Benso of Cavour, Realpolitik policies were employed in response to the failed revolutions of as means to strengthen states and tighten social order. The most famous German advocate of Realpolitik was Otto von Bismarck, the first Chancellor (–).
Cavour was another major advocate for Realpolitik, Cavour involved the kingdom on the British and French side of the Crimean War, using a peace conference to give international publicity to the cause of Italian unification. "Realpolitik" is the notion that politics must be conducted in terms of the realistic assessment of power and the self-interest of individual nation-states (and the pursuit of those interests by any means, often ruthless and violent ones) and Cavour used it superbly.
Origin of the term. The term Realpolitik was coined by Ludwig von Rochau, a German writer and politician in the 19th century.
His book Grundsätze der Realpolitik angewendet auf die staatlichen Zustände Deutschlands describes the meaning of the term. The study of the forces that shape, maintain and alter the state is the basis of all political insight and leads to the understanding that.