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Reconstruction in Practice New England Colonies It has long been understood that the prime motive for the founding of the New England colonies was religious freedom.
Certainly what those early colonists wanted was the freedom to worship God as they deemed proper, but they did not extend that freedom to everyone. Those who expressed a different approach to religious worship were not welcome.
Puritans especially were intolerant toward those who held views other than their own. Much of the religious disaffection that found its way across the Atlantic Ocean stemmed from disagreements within the Anglican Church, as the Church of England was called.
They argued that the Church of England was following religious practices that too closely resembled Catholicism both in structure and ceremony. The Anglican clergy was organized along episcopalian lines, with a hierarchy of bishops and archbishops. A more extreme view was held by the Separatists, a small group mainly from the English town of Scrooby, who opposed any accommodation with the Anglican Church.
At first, the Separatists left England for the more tolerant atmosphere of the Netherlands, but after a while, their leaders found the Dutch a little too tolerant; their children were adopting Dutch habits and culture.
When the opportunity arose to settle on land granted by the Virginia Company of London, the Separatists accepted the offer. Inthey set sail for America on the Mayflower. As a result of their migrations, the Separatists became known as the Pilgrims, people who undertake a religious journey.
Instead of landing on Virginia Company land, however, the Pilgrims found themselves in what is now southern Massachusetts. Because they were outside the jurisdiction of the company and concerned that new Pilgrims among them might cause problems, the leaders signed the Mayflower Compact, an agreement establishing a civil government under the sovereignty of King James I and creating the Plymouth Plantation colony.
The Pilgrims endured terrible hardships in their first years at Plymouth, with disease and starvation taking a toll. The infant colony grew slowly, raising maize and trading furs with the nearby Dutch as well as with the Indians. Plymouth Plantation was the first permanent settlement in New England, but beyond that distinction, its place in American history is somewhat exaggerated.
The Massachusetts Bay colony. Puritan merchants bought the defunct Virginia Company of Plymouth's charter in and received royal permission to found a colony in the Massachusetts area north of Plymouth Plantation. Almost overnight, they founded a half dozen towns, setting up churches on the congregationalist pattern under the Reverend John Cotton.
These churches ran their own affairs, taxed the community to finance operations, and hired and fired ministers. Although church attendance was compulsory, not everyone was deemed worthy of membership. This intimidating test ultimately served to limit church membership and forced the next generation to modify procedures.
Education was a high priority in Puritan society because literacy was essential to Bible study. Laws were passed calling for the creation of grammar schools to teach reading and writing, and Harvard College was founded in to train the clergy.
The narrow views of the Puritan leaders regarding religious conformity provoked opposition. Roger Williams argued for the separation of church and state, and the right of privacy in religious belief, and against compulsory church service.
Banished from Massachusetts Bay inhe went south to Narragansett Bay and founded the Providence settlement.
InWilliams received royal permission to start the colony of Rhode Island, a haven for other religious dissenters. Anne Hutchinson was another critic of clerical authority.
Puritan leaders called her and her supporters Antinomians—individuals opposed to the rule of law. Tried for sedition, Hutchinson was also exiled as a danger to the colony. She lived in Rhode Island for a time and then moved to New Netherland, where she was killed in during a conflict between settlers and Indians.
The Puritans brought disease as well as their religion to the New World, and the impact on the native population was the same as it had been in the Caribbean, Mexico, and South America a century earlier.
As settlements expanded beyond the coastal region, conflicts with the local tribes became common, with equally devastating results.While the settlement at Plymouth was slowly growing, several attempts were made by Gorges and other members of the Massachusetts Council for New England to plant colonies in the New World.
About 50 scattered settlements were established by March around the . Bay and New England ColoniesThere are many key differences that distinguish the inhabitants of the New England colonies from those of the Chesapeake Bay colonies. These dissimilarities include but are not limited to the differences between the social structure, family life, forms of government, religion, and the lives of indentured servants and children in the two colonies.
In comparison because New England was densely populated by those of Puritan beliefs religious tolerance was non existent. This major difference on both colonies political ideologies encouraged the development of two completely different societies. Religion. Protestant Christianity was the predominant religion in the Chesapeake colonies until the late 19th century.
Class hierarchy. Much like the old world, colonial America was divided into a rigid social structure. Pedigree mattered more than anything, and wealthy, English families stood at the top of the social ladder.
Period Chesapeake Colonies vs New England Colonies In , the first permanent English colony was established in North America. This settlement was known as Jamestown, and it paved the way for future English colonies.
The Spanish, French, and English all established major colonial settlements in North America in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In each colony, settlement and in other areas where they traded, but in general, French settlement occurred at a British North America – Virginia and New England English colonies in British North.